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(* = recent additions)


 ACTIVITY STATUS: A rating which indicates whether the area in question is currently in active use by deer for food, shelter, or as a travel corridor.  This would include tracks, trails, droppings, browsing, and bark scarring. (Vermont)


 ADVANCED REGENERATION: Softwood regeneration which is present beneath an established mature overstory. 









CANOPY CLOSURE: (called crown cover by the SAF): The ground area covered by the crowns of trees or woody vegetation, as delimited by the vertical projection of crown perimeters and commonly expressed as a percentage of total ground area.  (syn. Canopy cover)

 CARRYING CAPACITY: A measure of the supply of functional shelter and suitable food supply which could sustain a certain level of population. (Vermont)

 CLEAR CUTTING: See Silvicultural Systems

 COMMERCIAL THINNING: See Silvicultural Systems

 COMPOSITION, STAND: The Proportion of each trees species in a stand expressed as a percentage of either the total number, basal area, or volume of all tree species in the stand. (SAF)

 *CRITICAL WINTER HABITAT (CWH): Consists of mesic, mature to overmature softwood or softwood dominated mixedwood forest of moderate to high productivity with moderate to  high softwood crown closure.  CWH must meet minimum acceptable spacial arrangement and will be most important during that part of the rotation when the supply is at it's lowest point.  A forest class provides CWH when it meets structural criteria defined by one of three habitat windows.  (See guidelines discussion paper from DNR&E.)

 CROP TREE: Any tree that is selected to become a component of a future final harvest. (SAF)


 CROWN CLASS:  A class of tree based on crown position relative to the crowns of adjacent trees. Four classes follow (SAF):


     Dominant: Trees with crowns extending above the general level of the main canopy of even-aged groups of trees, and receiving full light from above and partly from the sides.


     Codominant: Trees with crowns forming the general level of      the main canopy in even-aged groups of trees, receiving full light from above, and comparitively little from the sides.


     Intermediate: Trees with crowns extending into the lower   portions of the main canopy of even-aged groups of trees, but shorter in height than the codominants.  They receive little direct light from above and none from the sides.


     Overtopped (Suppressed): Trees of varing levels of vigor   that have their crowns completely covered by the crowns of one or more neighboring trees.

 CORE HABITAT:   That portion of functional habitat which remains as the lowest amount (critical minimum) of area through a modelled rotation.

 CORE RANGE: Is composed of winter shelter areas where high      concentrations of dense softwoods with a high crown closures are accessible to suitable browse.





CUT PECKING ORDER: This term refers to the priorization of types of trees to be removed in a cutting operation; the pecking order.  For example, from Fraser's Maine Timberlands,   in softwood stands (>= 70% S):

   Promote to Cut:

     1.   cedar

     2.   oversize low-grade hardwood

     3.   oversized fir (10" dbh)

    4.   oversized hemlock (14" dbh)

     5.   oversized spruce (14" dbh)

     6.   oversized pine (18" dbh)

     7.   fir

     8.   hemlock

     9.   oversized quality hardwood (18" dbh)

     10.  undersized quality hardwood


 CUTTING CYCLE: The planned interval between partial harvests in an uneven-aged stand (see Thinning Interval).

 CUTTING METHODS: The cutting method is the method used for the felling and extracting of the forest products to the road side.  Commonly used methods in this region include. 

  Manual Felling

     - cable skidder, full tree to road side

     - cable skidder, tree length to road side

     - porter, manual processing, shortwood to road side


     Mechanized Felling

     - feller forwarder

     - feller buncher/grapple skidder, full tree to road side delimbing and processing

     - feller buncher/grapple skidder/stroke delimber, tree length to road side processing

     - double or single grip processors, shortwood forwarding to road side

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Last Updated 08/06/2004