Riparian Buffer Strips

Anderson, H.W., 1973. Effects of Clearcutting on Stream Temperature-A Literature Reveiw. Wash. Dept. Nat. Res., Rep. No. 29. 24p.

Andrus, C.W. Long, B.A. & H.A. Froehlich, 1988. Woody Debris and its Contribution to Pool Formation in a Coastal Stream 50 Years After Logging. Can J. of Fish & Aquatic Sci. Vol 45:7

Byrnn, D.J., & J.C. Clausen, 1991. Postharvest Assessment of Vermont's Acceptable Silvicultural Management Practices and Water Quality Impacts. Nor. J. of Appl. For. 8(4):140-144.

Canadian Forestry Service, 1874. Roads, Major Sediment Source. CFS For. Rep. 3(4):4-5

Clinnick, P.F., 1985. Buffer Strip Management in Forest Operations: A Reveiw. Australian For. 48(1):34-45.

Coats, R.N. & T.O. Miller, 1981. Cummulative Silvicultural Impacts on Watersheds:A Hydrologic and Regulatory Dilemma. J. of Environ. Man., 5(2):147-160.

DNR, 1994. Crown Forest Watercourse Buffer Zones Establishment and Management Guidelines for Forestry Activities. Draft 2., DNRE.

Dobson, D.A., 1989. Selective Logging and the Environment, a water perspective. In Symp. on Selective Logging and the Environ., May 27, 1989. Penticton, British Columbia.

Duncan, S.H. & J.W. Ward, 1985. The Influence of Watershed Geology and Forest Roads on the Composition of Salmon Spawning Gravel. Northwest Sci. 59(3):204-121

Riparian Buffer Strips (Con't)

Dunford, E.G., 1960. Logging Methods in Relation to Streamflow and Erosion. Proc. 5th World For. Congr., Seatle, Vol. 3 Sec VII, p.1703-1708.

Dykstra, D.P. & H.A. Froehlich, 1976. Stream Protection -What Does it Cost? Loggers Handbook XXXVI pp.25-28,85,72. Pacific Logging Congress.

Eschner, A.R. & J. Larmoyeux, 1963. Logging and Trout: Four Experimental Forest Practices and Their Effect on Water Quality. Progressive Fish Cultures 1963.

Grant, G., 1988. The Rapid Technique - A New Method For Evaluating Downstream Effects of Forest Practices of Riparian Zones. USDA For. Serv. Pac. N. W. Res. Stn. Gen Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-220. 36p.

Groenewoud, H. van, 1977. Interim Recommendation for the Use of Buffer Strips for the Protection of Small Streams in the Maritimes. Canadian Forestry Service, Dept. of Fisheries and the Environment, Info Report M-X-74

Hansen, P.L., Aug. 1974. A Short History of A Stream Alteration Howard Brook, York County. N.B. Dept. Fisheries and Environment.

Harr, R.D., 1977. Hydrology of Small, Forest Streams. Proc. Logging Debris Streams, OSU, 1977, OSU:21p.

Haupt, H.F. & W.J. Kidd, Jr., 1965. Good Logging Practices Reduce Sedimentation in Central Idaho. Journal of Foresty, September, 1965

Health and Weafare Canada, 1979. Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water.

Hibbert, A.R., 1967. Forest Treatment Effects on Water Yield. In Proc. Inter. Sympo. on For. Hydrology. pp.:527-543.

Hoover, M.D., 1945. Careless Skidding Reduces Benefits ofForest Cover for Watershed Protection. J. For. 43(8):765-766.

Hornbeck, J.W., R.S. Likens, R.S. Pierce, & F.H. Bormann,1975. Strip-Cutting as a Means of Protecting Site and Streamflow Quality When Clearcutting Northern Hardwoods. Proc. 4th N.A. For Soils Conf. pp:208-229.

Riparian Buffer Strips (Con't)

Hornbeck, J.W., C.W. Martin, & C.T. Smith, 1986. Protecting Forest Streams During Whole-Tree Harvesting. Nor. J. of Appl. For. 3:97-100.

Kaplan-Henry, T., 1987. Cumulative Watershed Effects Working Guide. Unpublished.

Lantz, R., 1971. Guidelines for Stream Protection in Logging Operations. A Report of the Research Division, Oregon State Game Commission. 29p.

McClimans, R. J., J.T. Gebhardt, & S.P. Roy, 1979. Perspectives For "Silvicultural Best Management Practices". App. For. Res. Inst. Rep. No. 42, State University of New York, Syracuse, N.Y., 13210

Megahan, W.F., 1984. Road Effects and Impacts - Watersheds. In Proc. Forets Transportation Symp., Dec. 11-13, Casper, WY. USDA For. Serv. Rocky Mtn. Reg. Eng. Staff Unit.

Moore, M.K., 1977. Factors Contributing to Blowdown in Streamside Leave Strips on Vancouver Island. BCMOF, Vic. B.C. LMR #3.

Moore, G.C., & S.G. Henley, 1984. Management of Watercourse Buffer Zones. N.B. Nat. Resources, Final Report of GDA projects 144.201 and 144.202.

National Council of the Pap. Ind. For. Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI), 1988. Procedures for assessing the effectiveness of Best Managemnt Practices in Protecting Water and Stream Quality Associated. NCASI Tech Bull. 538.

OMNR, 1988. Environmental Guidelines for Access Roads and Water Crossings. OMNR. 65p.

OMNR, 1991. Code of Practice For Timber Management Operations in Riparian Areas. Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario.

Oregon Dept. of Forestry, 1993. Proposed New Rules for Riparian Protection Under the Oregon Forest Practices Act.

Oregon Dept. of Forestry, 1993. Water Classification and Protection: Backgrounder.


Riparian Buffer Strips (Con't)

Packer, P.E. & G.F. Christiansen, 1964. Guidelines for Controlling Sediment From Secondary Logging Roads. USDA For. Serv., Interm. For and Range Exp. Stn. and Northern Reg. 42p., illus.

Raedeke, K.J., 1988. Streamside Management: Riparian Wildlife and Forestry interactions. Unvi. Wash. Seattle Pap No.59:227pp.

Reinhart, K.G. & A.R. Eschner, 1962. Effects of Stream Flow of Four Different Forest Practices in Allegheny Mountains. J. Geophys. Res. 67:2433-2455.

Rothwell, R.L., September 1978. Watershed Management Guidelines for Logging and Road Construction in Alberta.

Riparian Habitat Committee, 1982. Best Management Practices for the Management and Protection of Western Riparian Stream Ecosystems. Am. Fish Soc.

Stark, N., 1980. Changes in Soil Ware Quality Resulting from Three Timber Cutting Methods and Three Levels of Fiber Utilization. J. Soil Water Conserv., 35(4):183-186.

Trimble, G.R., & R.S. Sartz, 1957. How Far from a Stream Should a Logging Road Be Located? Journal of Forestry, 55(5):339-341.

Troendle, C.A., 1986. The Potential Effects of Partial Cutting and Thinning on Streamflow from a SubAlpine Forest. USDA For. Serv. Rocky Mtn. For. and Range Exp. Stn. Res. Pap. RM-274 7p.

White, J.B. & H.H. Krause, 1992. The Impact of Forest Management Practices on Water Quality and the Establishment & Management of Protective Buffer Zones. UNB

Yee, C.S. & T.D. Roelofs, 1980. Planning Forest Roads to Protect Salmonid Habitat. USDA For. Serv. Anadromous Fish Habitat Program. Pac N.W. For and Range Exp Stn. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-109.


Protection Techniques: Advanced Regen & Commercial Thinnings

Aho, P.E., G. Fiddler, G.M. Filip, 1983. How to Reduce Injures to Residual Trees During Stand Management Activities. USDA For. Serv., Pac. NW For. and Range Exp. Stn. Gen Tech Rep. PNW-156. 16p.

Archibald, D.J., R.W. Arnup, July 1993. The Management of Black Spruce Advance Growth in Northeastern Ontario. VMAP, NEST Tech. Report TR-008, VMAP Report No. 93-05.

Froding, A., 1982. The Condition of Newly Thinned Stands. A Study of 101 Randomly Selected Thinnings. Swedish University of Agric. Sci., Dept. of Operat. Effe., Garpenberg, Report No 144. (English Summary).

Froning, K., 1980. Logging Hardwoods to Reduce Damage to White Spruce Understory. Info. Rep. NOR-X-229, Northern Forest Research Centre, Canadian Forestry Service.

Gingras, J-F., 1990. Haresting Methods Favouring the Protection of Advanced Regeneration: Quebec Experience. For. Eng. Res. Inst. Can., TN-144:8p.

Gingras, J-F., D. Cormier, J-C Ruel, & D Pin. 1991. Comparative Study of the Impact of Three Skidding Methods on Advanced Regeneration. FERIC, TN-163.

Gottfried, G.J., 1987. Effects of Modified Skidding Rules on mixed Conifer Advanced Regeneration in Arizona. USDA For. Serv. Rocky Mtn. For. and Range Exp. Stn. Res. Note RM-479. 8p.

Gravelle, P., 1977. Growth Response and Logging Damage to Advanced Regeneration Following Overstory Removal: the Present State of Knowledge. Potlach Corp. Wood Products, Western Division. TP-77-3.

Hardy, J.M., 1988. Evaluation de Quelques Experiences de Protection de la Regeneration Naturelle Lors de la Recolte. QMER, Quebec.

Hughes, E.L., 1969. Survival and Development of Regeneration Two Years After Mechanical logging in Northeastern New Brunswick. Can. For. Serv., Int. Rep. 47.

Lamson, N.I., H.C. Smith, & G.W. Miller, 1985. Logging Damage Using an Individual-Tree Selection Practice in Appalachian Hardwood Stands. NJAF 2.

Mann, J.W., 1985. Logging Techniques to Minimize Regeneration Damage During Overwood Removal. In Proc. Shelterwood Management System Works. OSU FIR Program and SAF 1985:43-46.

Protection Techniques: Advanced Regen & Commercial Thinnings (Con't)

McCaughey, W.W. & W.C. Schmidt, 1982. Understory Tree Release Following Harvest Cutting in Spruce-Fir Forests of the Intermountain West. USDA For. Serv. Res. Pap., INT-285:20pp.

Nebeker, T.E. & J.D. Hodges, 1985. Thinning and Harvesting Practices to Minimize site and Stand Disturbance and Susceptability to Bark Bettle and Disease Attacks. USDA For. Serv. S. E. For. Exp. Stn., 56:263-271.

Page, R., 1989. La Protection de la Regeneration, la Renuneration et les Equipments Forestiers. Master Thesis, U. of L., Quebec.

Panaznyuk, V.A. & N.I. Shchankin, 1983. Preservation of Advanced Growth based on New Logging Techniques. Env. Can., OOENV TR-2304.

Penny, S.J., 1989. Natural Regeneration on Cutover Sites With an Emphasis on the Preservation of Advanced Growth: A Literature Reveiw. U. of N.B., Master Thesis, 1989.

Quebec Government: Regeneration Protection Cutting Guide: Manual Felling.

Quebec Government: Regeneration Protection Cutting Guide: Mechanical Felling.

Rice, Shawn, 1991. The Effect of Full-Tree and Tree-Length Harvesting on Advanced Regeneration at Deersdale, N.B. Senior Thesis, BSc.F., UNB.

Ruel, J.C., 1988. The Impact of Harvesting on Advanced Regeneration in Quebec. Proc. CPPA Woodlands Sec., 69th Ann. Mtg., 1988.

Sauder, E.A., 1992. Timber Harvesting Techniques That Protect Conifer Understory in Mixedwood Stands: Case Studies. For. Can. Alberta For. Serv., Cat. No. FO42-91/100-1992E. 71p.



Harvesting Methods


Araki, D., 1990. Site Disturbance Training Manual. FERIC. Unpublished.

Bennett, W.D., 1971. Identification and Measurment of Key Environmental and Operating Factors on Logging Operations. PAPRICAN, W.P. No. 26, Point Claire, Quebec.

Blundell, W., 1987. Planned Skid Tracks - What is the Cost? NZFI, Dec 1987/29, 4p. (?)

British Columbia Ministry of Forests, 1991. Developing Timber Harvesting Prescriptions to Minimize Site Degradation. BCMOF Land Management Report No. 62. 64p.

Bullard, S.H. & W.F. Watson, 1986. Timber Harvesting Technology: Environmental and Site Preparation Costs. Int. J. Environ. Stud, London, (3/4):261-266.

Cottell, P.L., & B.J. Sauder, 1982. Cable Thinning in Coastal B.C.: The Small Tree Resource, a Materials Handling Challenge. FPRS Proc. 7306:55-61.(?)

DNRE, 1985. An Evaluation of Harvesting Systems in New Brunswick. G.D.A. Project 144.202, ISBN-0-88838-854-3.

Ericson, O., 1986. Modern Routines for Planning of Logging Operations. Skogsarbeten.

FAO, 1977. Planning Forest Roads and Harvesting Systems. FAO Forest Paper No. 2.

Fisher, E.L., L.A. Geddes, & H.G. Gibson, 1984. Rule Based Selection of Forest Harvest Equipment. Am. Soc. Agric. Eng. Microfiche Collect, 84-1614. (?)

FMG/Lokomo, 198?. Final Felling With a Harvester.

Frank, R.M., & E.L. Putnam, 1971. Seedling Survival in Spruce-Fir After Mechanical Tree Harvesting in Strips.

Gaskin, J.E., 1985. Organized Felling: Its Effect on Skidder Productivity in 13 Year Old Radiata Thinning. NZ Log. Ind. Res. Assoc. Rep. 10(7):4pp.

Harkonen, P., 1990. Commercial Thinning Field Trials. Swedish National Board of Forestry.

Harvesting Methods (Con'T)

Hawkes, 1979. An Introduction to Cable Harvesting Systems for Small Timber. Vermont Dept. of For. , Parks and Rec., Montpellier Vt. 69p.

Hooker, L.W., 1949. Logging Damage:Tree Length vs Log Length. American Pulpwood Association Meeting.

Horncastle, D.C. 1980. Full Tree Logging: Advantages from Harvester Veiwpoint. Proc. CPPA. Woodlands Sec., 61st Ann. MTG.

Jeglum, J.K., 1990. Modified Harvesting to Promote Natural Regeneration of Black Spruce. In. For. Can. Inf. Rep. N-X-271, pp 123-129

Johnson, W. & V. Wellburn, 1976. Handbook For Ground Skidding and Road building in B.C. For. Eng. Res. Inst. Can. Handbook, HB-01.

Knutell, H., 1987. Development of Thinning Systems to reduce stand Damages. IUFRO Proc. Project Group P4.02 and Subject Group S1.05-05., Sweden, June 9-18, Res. Note No 98.

Lewis, T. & W.W. Carr, 1989. Developing Timber Harvest Prescriptions to Minimize Site Degradation. (Interior Sites). BCMOF Land Management HB Field Guide Insert. 31p. LMR -62.

McInnis, B.G. and M. R. Roberts., 1990. The Effects of Full-tree and Tree Length Harvests on Natural Regeneration and Seedling Microenvironments. In. Proceedings of the Conference on Natural Regneration Management. NBFRAC/For. Can.



Harvesting Methods (Con'T)

Norden, B. & A. Tosterud, 1984. Tree Section Harvesting in Thinning Operations. Translation, J. Hermelin. Skogsarbeten

Nova Scotia Dept. of Lands and Forests, March 1989. Worker Productivity in Merchantable Thinning, Shelterwood and Remnant Removal Operations. N.S. Dept. Lands and Forests. Forest Research Report No. 16.

Harvesting Methods (Con'T)

N.S. Dept. of Lands and Forests, 1990. A Hardwood Shelterwood Extration Trial:Conventional vs Trail Harvest System. For. Res. Rep. 25.

N.S. Dept. of Lands and Forests, March 1991. Productivity of a Valmet 901 Single-Grip Harvester in Merchantable Thinnings. Cooperation Agreement for Forestry Development, Forest Research Paper No. 27.

Nyland, R.D., & W.J. Gabriel, 1972. Injuries from Tree-Length Skidding With Rubber-Tired vs Crawler Tractors. S.U.N.Y. Coll. For. Appli. For. Res. Inst. Rep. No. 8, 11pp.

Richardson, R., & B. Henderson, 1993. Harvesting Systems and Their Environmental Impacts: A Summary of Current Knowledge and Research Needs. FERIC, Forestry Canada, 4Y050-91-1065

Sauder, E.A., 1971. The Benefits of Using Alternative Logging Systems for Harvesting Sensitive Areas. Proc. Conf. on Bio. and Econ. Consid. in Mech. Tim. Har., Univ of Minn.

Sauder, E.A., 1991. Alternative Logging Studies Progress Report of 1983. FERIC Unpublished

Seifert, J.C.W., 1982. Production Rates and Residual Stand Impacts for Skidding Machines During Overstory Removal. OSU, Master Thesis.

Smith, R.A., 1988. Harvesting Guidelines for the Vernon Forest District - Contour Strip Logging. Skidroads and Landings. Poster Presentation. In Degradation of Forest Land: "Forests At Risk". Proc of the 10th B.C. Soil Sci Workshop.

Smithers, L.A., 1964. The Impact of Mechanical Logging on Silviculture in Canada. CFS, Contrib. 648.

Spencer, J.S., Jr., M.H. Hansen, & P.J. Jakes. 1986. A Method For Estimating Operability and Location of the Timber Resource. USDA For. Serv. Nor. Cen. For. Exp. Stn., NC-273.

Stuart, W.B. 1987. Proc. of Har. Mach. and Sys. Eval. Workshop. Charleston S.C., Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences. Res. Not 108:245p.

Thompson, M.A., 1991. Thinning Northern Hardwoods With Chain Saws and Forwarders. Nor. J. of Appl. For. 4:149-153.

Harvesting Methods (Con'T)

Wakelin, Trevor K., Feb. 1992. Tree Length and Shortwood Harvesting: A Comparison. Canadian Forest Industries.

Watson, W.F., S.C. Taylor, G.H. Weaver, & R.K. Matthes, 1985. Impact of Feller-Bunchers and Plantation Spacing on Thinning. S. J. of Appl. For. 9(2):117-120.




Archibald, D.J., R.W. Arnup, July 1993. The Management of Black Spruce Advance Growth in Northeastern Ontario. VMAP, NEST Tech. Report TR-008, VMAP Report No. 93-05.

Bjorkborn, J.C., 1971. Stand Changes In the First 10 Years After Seedbed Preparation For Paper Birch. USDA Forest Research Paper NE-238.

Chamberlain, D., 1990. Prediction of Advanced Regeneration: A Quebec Experience. In. Proceedings of the Conference on Natural Regneration Management. NBFRAC/For. Can.

Clements, S.E., & T.D. Needham, 1990. Evaluating Regeneration Strategies Under Risk. In. Proceedings of the Conference on Natural Regneration Management. NBFRAC/For. Can.

Davis, W. C., 1990. The Role of Advance Growth in Regeneration of Red Spruce and Balsam Fir in East Central Maine. In. Proceedings of the Conference on Natural Regneration Management. NBFRAC/For. Can.

Ferguson, D.E., 1984. Needed: Guidelines for Defining Acceptable Advance Regeneration. USDA Intermountain Forest and Range Exp. Stn., INT-341.

Frisque, G., G.F. Weetman & E. Clemmer, 1978. Reproduction and Trial Projected Yields 10 Years After Cutting 36 Pulpwood Stands in Eastern Canada. FERIC, Tech. Report No. TR-23.

Groot, A. & R.A. Haig, 199?. Take Advantage of Advanced Growth When Planning Harvesting Operations. Forestry Canada, For. Res. Applications, Tech Note # 4.

Harvey, B.D. & Y. Bergeron, 1989. Site Patterns of Natural Regeneration Following Clear-Cutting in Northwestern Quebec. Can J. For. Res., 19(11):1458-1469.

Harvey, E.M., G.H. Mohammed & T.L. Noland, 1993. A Bibliography on Competition, Tree Seedling Characteristics, and Related Topics. Ont. Ministry Nat. Resources, Forest Research Report No. 108.

Hatcher, R.J., 1964. Balsam Fir Advanced Growth After Cutting in Quebec. For. Chron. 1964.



Reproduction/Regeneration (Con'T)

Horton, K.W., 1965. Mechanical Pulpwood Logging and Regeneration. Pulp and Paper Magazine of Canada. 66(11):494-498.

Hughes, E.L., 1970. Regeneration After Logging in the Maritime Provinces. Pulp and Paper Magazine of Canada. (71):20.

Hungerford, R.D., & R.E. Babbit, 1987. Overstory Removal and Residue treatments effect soil surface, air, and soil temperature =-Implications for Seedling Survival. USDA, For. Serv. Interm Res. Stn. Res Pap. INT-377. 19p.

Hunter, B.W., 1987. The Regeneration of Clearcut Tolerant Hardwood Stands in Central New Brunswick as Effected by Site Disturance and Harvest Season. Univ. of New Brunswick, Thesis, 33p.

Maine Forest Service, Dept. of Conservation, 1990. Forest Regeneration and Clearcutting Standards. Forest Practices Act.

Marquis, D.A., 1981. Effect of Advance Seedling Size and Vigor on Survival after Clearcutting.

Marquis, D.A. & J.C. Bjorkbom, 1982. Guidelines for Evaluating Regeneration Before and After Clearcutting Alleghent Hardwoods. USDA For Ser., Northeastern For Exp. Stn. Res. Note NE-307

Martin, C.W. & J.W. Hornbeck, 1989. Revegetation After Strip Cutting and Block Clearcutting in Northern Hardwoods: a 10 Year History. USDA For. Serv. N. E. For Exp. Stn. Res. Pap. NE-0006:25

McArthur, J.C., 1963. Effects of Mechanized Logging on the Composition of a Balsam Fir Stand in the Gaspe Peninsula. Pulp & Pap, Mag. of Can., 1963.

Place, I.C.M., 1954. The InFluence of Seedbed Conditions on the Reproduction of Spruce and Fir. Dept. North. Aff. & Nat. Res., For. Br. Bull. 117.

Ruel, J.C., 1990. Advanced Growth Abundance and Regeneration Patterns after Clearcutting in Quebec. In. Proceedings of the Conference on Natural Regneration Management. NBFRAC/For. Can.

Reproduction/Regeneration (Con'T)

Saltarelli, N.J., 1980. Better Regeneration Through Full-Tree Logging. Proc. CPPA, Woodlands Sec., 61st Ann. Mtg., 1980.

Sander, I.L., 1972. Size of Oak Advanced Reproduction: Key to Growth Following Harvest Cutting. USDA, For. Serv. Agric. Handbook, No. 405:21p.

Strauch, Patrick J., The Establishment and Early Growth of Red Spruce and Balsam Fir Regenaration. In. Proceedings of the Conference on Natural Regneration Management. NBFRAC/For. Can.

Tubbs, Carl H., Neil Lamson, 1991. Effect of Shelterwood Canopy Density on Sugar Maple Reproduction in Vermont. USDA Forest Service.

Vincent, A.B., June 1952. Logging Damage to Spruce and Fir Advance Growth. Dept. Resources and Development, Ottawa, Silvicultural Leaflet No. 69.

Wall, R.E., 1983. Early Stand Development After Clearcutting on the Cape Breton Highlands. CFS. Mar. For. Res. Cen., Info. Rep., M-X-000143:16p.

Walsh, S. & C.S. Krishka, 1991. Early Stand Development After Harvesting on Selected Sites in Norhtwestern Ontario. N. W. Ont. For. Tech. Dev. Unit Rep. 64, 33p.

Webber, B., 1969. Advanced Growth Destruction, Slash Coverage and Ground Conditions in Logging Operations in Eastern Canada. Pulp and Pap. Mag. Canada., Woodlands Pap. #8:109p.

Webster, A.D., 1965. A Study of the Effects of Rubber Tired vs. Tracked Skidders on the Advance Growth of a Forest. Pulp and Pap. Mag. of Can., 66(12):547-550.

Weetman, G.F., 1965. The Need to Study Silvicultural Effects of Mechanized Logging Systems in Eastern Canada. For. Chron. 1965.

Weetman, G.F., W. Grapes, & G.J. Frisque, 1973. Reproduction and Ground Conditions 5 years After Pulpwood Harvesting: Results From 37 Study Areas in Eastern Canada. PPRIC, No. LRR/51:97.

Westveld, M., 1926. Logging Damage to Advanced Spruce and Fir Reproduction. J. For. 24:579-582.

Reproduction/Regeneration (Con'T)

Westveld, Marinus, February 1931. Reproduction on Pulpwood Lands in the Northeast. USDA Washington, D.C., Tech. Bull. No. 223

Wright, T.G., 1963. Some Approaches to Regeneration From the Logging standpoint. For. Chron. June:145-148.

Zelazny, V. & M. Hayter, 1990. Predicting Natural Regeneration Abundance With a Productivity-Oriented Site Classification. In. Proceedings of the Conference on Natural Regneration Management. NBFRAC/For. Can.


Silvicultural Systems/Guides

Alexander, Robert R., April 1986. Silvicultural Systems and Cutting Methods for Old-Growth Spruce-Fir Forests in the Central and Southern Rocky Mountains. USDA, Gen. Tech. Report RM-126.

Arnup, R.W., B.A. Campbell, R.P. Raper, M.F. Squires, K.D. Virgo, V.H. Wearn, R.G. White, 1988. A Sivicultural Guide for the Spruce Working Group in Ontario. Ont. Ministry Nat. Resources, Science and Tech. Series,

Vol. 4.

Baldwin Jr., V.C., 1977. Regeneration Following Shelterwood Cutting In A New Brunswick Softwood Stand. Maritimes Research Centre, Info. Report M-X-76.

Benzie, J.W., & Z.A. Zasada, 1972. Shelterwood-Strip Harvesting Pattern with Full-Tree Skidding to Regenerate Red Pine. USDA For. Serv. N. Cen. For. Exp. Stn., NC-132.

Crow, T.R., & F.T. Metzger, 19??. Regeneration Under Selection Cutting.

Crawford, H.S. & R.M. Frank, 1988. Rating Srpuce-Fir Silviculture For Wildlife and Forestry. USDA Information Management Group, Northeastern For. Exp. Stn. Pamphlet

Czapowskyj, M.M., Robert V.R., R.M. Frank, 1977. Strip Clearcutting Did Not Degrade the Site in A Spruce-Fir Forest in Central Maine. USDA Forest Service Research Paper NE-367.

DNRE, 1982. Choices in Silviculture for Eastern Canadian Forests. N.B. DNR.

DNRE, 198?. New Brunswick Forestry Practices. Cooperation Agreement for Forestry, Canada/New Brunswick.

DNRE, 1992. List of Conditions (Guidelines) for Two-Pass, Select, and Salvage Harvesting in Sensitive Areas, in the two Repap Licenses. In. Internal Document Regarding Silvi-Crew Proposal to Evaluate Windfirmness in Non-Clearcut Harvesting Operations. From G. Watling to Tom Spinney.

DNRE, 1993. Listing of Prescription Cuts Completed on the two Repap Licenses from 1989 to 1992. Internal Document from G. Watling to R. Walker.

Silvicultural Systems/Guides (Con'T)

DNRE, 1993. Pre/post Cut Inspections for Prescription Harvests. Internal Document from R. Walker to Danny Murphy and Steve Gordon.

Fleming, R.L. & R.M. Crossfield, 198?. Strip Cutting in Shallow-Soil Upland Black Spruce Near Nipigon, Ontario. III. Windfall and Mortality in the Leave Strips: Preliminary Results. Can. For. Serv., Great Lakes For. Res. Cen., Information Report O-X-354.

Francis, B., 1991. Alternative Harvesting Methods: When to Use and When to Pass. (west coast). Can. For. Ind. April.

Frank, R.M. & J.C. Bjorkbom, 1973. A Silvicultural Guide for Spruce-Fir in the Northeast. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-6. Northeastern For. Exp. Stn.

Fraser Inc., 1990. Maine Timberlands: Silvicultural Prescriptions. Fraser Company Inc.

Godin, Betty, 19??. Forecasting Cutover Response in New Brunswick A Guide for Silvicultural Decision Making. ISBN 0-88838-853-5

Hammond, H., 1991. Seeing the Forest Among the Trees:the Case For Wholistic Forest Use. Polestar Book Publishers. Vancouver, B.C.

Hannah, P.R., 1988. The Shelterwood Method in Northeastern Forest Types: A Literature Review.

Hannah, P.R., 1991. Regeneration of Northern Hardwoods in the Northeast with the Shelterwood Method. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 8(3)

Jeanes, T.G., 1989. Role and Biological Basis of Selective Logging. In Symp. on Selective Logging and the Environ., May 27, 1989. Penticton, British Columbia.

Jeglum, J.K. & D.J. Kennington, 1993. Strip Clearcutting in Black Spruce: A Guide For the Practicing Forester. For. Can. Ont. Reg., Great Lakes Forestry Centre, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario.

Laacke, R.J. & J.H. Tomascheski, 1986. Shelterwood Regeneration of True Fir:Conclusions After 8 Years. USDA For. Serv. Pac. SW. For. and Rng. Exp. Stn., PSW-184.

Silvicultural Systems/Guides (Con'T)

Lamson, N.I., H.C. Smith, & G.W. Miller, 1985. Logging Damage Using an Individual Tree Selection Practice in Applalachian Hardwood Stands. Nor. J. of Appl. For. 2(4):117-120.

Lancaster, K.F., R.S. Walters, F.M. Laing, & R.T. Foulds, 1973. A Silvicultural Guide for Developing A Sugarbush. USDA Forest Service Research Paper NE-286. Northeastern Forest Experimental Forest Exp. Stn.

LaRocque, G., 1985. Regeneration in a Tolerant Hardwood Stand Managed Under Single Tree Selection. Can. For. Ser., PI-X-50.

Leach, J., 1994. Prescription Harvesting: A Silvicultural Tool. CPPA Woodlands Paper, Can. For. Ind., Jan/Feb., 1994.

Leak, W.B., D.S.Solomon, & S.M. Filip, 1969. A Silvicultural Guide for Northern Hardwoods in the Northeast. USDA Forest Service Research Paper NE-143. Northeastern Forest Experimental Forest Exp. Stn.

Leak, W.B. & J.H. Gottsacker, 1985. New Approaches to Uneven aged Management in New England. Nor. J. of Appl.For. 2(1):28-31

Lees, J.C., 1978. Hardwood Silviculture and Management: An Interpretive Literatutre Review for the Canadian Maritime Provinces. Maritimes Forest Research Centre, Info. Report M-X-93.

Lees, J.C., 1970. Natural Regeneration of White Spruce under a Spruce Aspen Shelterwood. Can. For. Serv., Bull. Pub. 1274:14pp.

Lees, J.C. & D.G. Embree, 1983. New England Hardwood Stocking Guides Should Work Well for Maritime Woodlot Owners. C.F.S., Maritimes For. Res. Cen. Tech. Note 85.

Lees, J.C. & B.J. Higgs, 1991. Enrichment of Hardwood Regeneration on Contemporary Clearcuts by Direct Seeding of Birch. Can. Pulp & Pap. Assoc. Woodlands Sec. 72nd Ann. Mtg., 1991.

Lundquist, Lars, 1990. Some notes on the regeneration of Norway Spruce on Six Permanent plots Managed with Single Tree Selection. For. Eco. & Man. 46(1991):49-57.

Silvicultural Systems/Guides (Con'T)

MacDonald, J.E., 1994. Silvicultural Systems: What's the Difference Between the Clearcutting and Shelterwood Systems? Woody Points Newsletter, 22(3):10-11

Maclean, D.W., 1949. Improvement Cutting in Tolerant Hardwoods. Canada Dept. Mines and Resources, Dominion Forest Service Research Note No. 95.

Marquis, D.A., 1965. Controlling Light in Small Clearcuttings. U.S. Forest Research Paper NE-39.

Marquis, D.A., D.S. Solomon, & J.C. Bjorkbom, 1969. A Silviculture Guide for Paper Birch in the Northeast. USDA Forest Service Research Paper NE-130. Northeastern Forest Experimental Forest Exp. Stn.

Marquis, D.A., T.J. Grisez, J.C. Bjorkbom, & B.A. Roach, 1975. Interm Guide For the Regeneration of Allegheny Hardwoods. USDA Forest Service Research Paper NE-19. Northeastern Forest Experimental Forest Exp. Stn.

N.S. Dept. Lands and Forests, Feb. 1991. A Red Spruce Uniform-Strip Shelterwood Trial: 10 Year Results. Cooperation Agreement for Forestrty Development.

N.S. Dept. Lands and Forests, Jan. 1992. Worker Productivity in Precommercial Thinnings.

N.S. Dept. Lands and Forests, 1993. Forestry Field Handbook. For Res. Sec., For. Br., Canada/Nova Scotia Forest Renewal Agreement.

OMNR, 1972. Systems of Forest Cropping. OMNR Booklet, For. Man. Br.

Prince Edward Island Dept. Lands and Forests, 1989. Forestry Field Handbook. Canada/PEI Forest Renewal Agreement.

Ramsey, J.A., 1979. Silviculture for Quality Hardwood Stands in the Maritime Provinces. UNB.

Ray, R., 1993. Striking a Balance; A Selective Cutting System in Central Ontario.

Richardson, Robin, Jan. 1992. Partial Cut Operations in the Maritimes and Maine. FERIC Internal Report.

Richardson, Robin, 1993. Partial Cuts: Part of the answer.

Canadian Forest Industries

Silvicultural Systems/Guides (Con'T)

Roach, B.A., 1977. A Stocking Guide for Allegheny Hardwoods and its Use in Controlling Intermediate Cuttings. USDA Forest Service Research Paper NE-373. Northeastern Forest Experimental Forest Exp. Stn.

Smith, D.M., 1962. The Practice of Silviculture. 7th Ed., Wiley & Sons Inc., 578pp.

Topolinski, K., 1991. Specialized Harvesting potential on Fraser Canadian Timberlands. Fraser Inc.

Ward, J.S., 1991. Growth Response of Upland Oak Saw Timber Stands to Thinning in Connecticut. Northern J. of Appl. For. 8(3).

Weetman, G.F., November 1957. Selection Cutting in Uneven-aged and Two-storied Stands of Balsam-fir, Spruce and Cedar. Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada, Tech. Report No. 59

Weetman, G.F., & D. Algar, 1975. Selection Cutting in Over-Mature Spruce-Fir Stands in Quebec. Can J. For. Res. 6:69-77.

Westveld, M., 1952. Ecology and Silvicultural of the Spruce-Fir Forest of Eastern North America. J. For. 51:422-430.

Whynot, Tim, Sept. 1992. Commercial Thinning-Pulp Now...Sawlogs later. Forest Times, Silvatalk.

Whynot, Tim, Nov. 1992. Why cut the smaller trees? Forest Times, Silvatalk.

Zasada, J.C. & D.F. Grigal, 1976. The effects of Silvicultural System and Seedbed Preparation on Natural Regeneration of White Spruce and Associated Species in Interior Alaska. Minnsota Agr. Exp. Stn., Sci. J. Ser. 10226

Zasada, Z.A., & J.W. Benzie, 1972. Thinning Patterns for Mechanized Harvesting and Their Impact on the Forest. Northern Logger 21(5):12-13

Zelazny, V.F, et. al., 1989. Field Guide(s) to Forest Site Classification in New Brunswick. Canada/New Brunswick Forestry Subsidiary Agreements. DNRE.






Silvics of Species

Atkinson, G.T. & V.F. Haavisto, 1992. Managing Black Spruce Stands for Perpetual Seed Supply. For. Can., Ontario Region., Tech Note No. 14.

Baskerville, G.L., W.C. Calvert, December 1967. An Exceptional Black Spruce Stand. Can. Dept. For., MFRC Inf. Rep. M-X-13.

Bell, F. Wayne, 1991. Critical Silvics of Conifer Crop Species and Selected Competitive Vegetation in Northwestern Ontario. Forest Resource Development Agreement, COFRDA Report 3310, NWOFTDU Tech. Report 19.

Blais, J.R., 1958. The Vunerability of Balsam Fir to Spruce Budworm Attack in Northwestern Ontario, With Special Reference to the Physiological age of the Tree. For Chron 1958:405-422

Buse, L.J., F.W. Bell, 1992. Pocket Guide to: Critical Silvics of Competitor Species In Northwestern Ontario. Ont. Ministry Nat. Resources.

Frank, R.M. & L.O. Stafford, 1970. Lack of Viable Seeds in the Forest Floor After Clearcutting. J. of For. 1970(12):776-778.

George, D.W. & B.C. Fisher, 1979. The Effect of Site and Age on Tree Regeneration in Young Upland Hardwood Clearcuts. Proceedings of Seventh Central Hardwoods Fotrest Conference. p 40-47.

Habeck, J.R., 1958. White Cedar Ecotypes in Wisconsin. Ecology Vol 39((3):457-463

Haig, I.T., 1932. Premature Germination of Forest Seed During Natural Storage in Duff. Ecol. 13:311-312

Hills, S.C., D. M. Morris, 1992. The Function of Seed Banks in Northern Forest Ecosystems (A Literaure Review). Ont. Ministry Nat. Resources, Forest Research Info. Paper No.107.

Hutnik, R.J. & H.W. Yawney, 1961. Silvical Characteristics of Red Maple. USDA, For. Serv. NE-142, northeast For. Exp. Stn.

Lanteigne, L.J. & I.R. Methven, 1986. Cutover Response of a Fir-Spruce Stand in Central New Brunswick. In: Proc. 67 th Annual Meeting Woodlands Section, CPPA.

Louter, J.H., M. Kershaw, A.M. Gordon, 1993. The autecology of Competing Non-Crop Vegetation on Old Field Sites in Southern Ontario. Ont. Ministry Nat. Resorces.

Mace, A.C., 1984. Effect of Harvesting and Stand Establishment in Hardwoods in Eastern North America. Proc. Conf. COFE/IUFRO, Maine and New Brunswick.

Silvics of Species (Con'T)

Minckler, L.S. & J.D. Woerheide, 1965. Reproduction of Hardwoods 10 Years After Cutting as Affected by Site and Opening Size. J. For. 63:103-107.

Morris, R.F., 1948. How Old is a Balsam Tree? Forestry Chronicle, Vol.24:106-110

Musselman, R.C., D.T. Lester, & M.S. Adams, 1975. Localized Ecotypes of Thuja occidentalis L. in Wisconsin. Ecology Vol 56(3):647-655.

Place, I.C.M., 1955. The Influence of Seed-Bed Conditions on the Regeneration of Spruce and Balsam Fir. Dept. Northern Affairs and National Resources, Bulletin 117.

Racey, G.D., T.S. Whitfield, R.A. Sims, 19??. Northwestern Ontario Forest Ecosystem Interpretations. Ont. Ministry Nat. Resources, ABB ONT MNR NWOFTDU TR-46.

Roberts, M.R. & H. Dong, 199?. Effects of Forest Floor Disturbance on Soil Seed Banks, Germination and Early Survival after Clearcutting a Northern Hardwood Stand in Central New Brunswick.

Stand/Site Damage

British Columbia Ministry of Forests, 1987. Ground Skidding Guidelines With Emphasis on Minimizing Site Disturbance. BCMOF, 58p.

Diggle, P. 1987. Better Harvesting Patterns For Protecting Forest Soils. BCMOF and Lands, Victoria.

Froehlich, H.A., 1976. The Influence of Different Thinning Systems on Damage to Soil and Trees. In: Proc. 16th IUFRO World Congress, Div 4, Oslo, Norway.

Froehlich, H.A., D.E. Aulerich, & R. Curtis, 1981. Designing Skid Trail Systems to Reduce Soil Impacts From Tractive Logging Machines. Oregon State Univ., School of For., Corvalis, Or., Res. Pap. 44. 15p.

Grey, D.C., & E.O. Jacobs, 1985. The impact of Mechanized Harvesting Systems on Forest Site Quailty. TAPPI 1985:(7):14.3.1-14.3.19.

Groot, A. & R.A. Haig, 1991. Minimize Peatland Damage with Careful Harvest Planning. Forestry Canada, For. Res. Applications, Tech Note # 2.

Groot, A., 1987. Silvicultural Conseqences of Forest Harvesting on Peatlands: Site Damage and Slash Conditions. C.F.S. 1987

Hatchell, G.E., C.W. Ralston, 1971. Natural Recovery of Surface Soils Disturbed in Logging. Tree Planters' Notes, Vol. 22, No. 2.

Hendrison, J. 1990. Damage-Controlled Logging in Managed Tropical Rainforest in Suriname. Ecology and Management of Tropical Rain Forest in Suriname. (?)

Hooker, L.W., 1949. Logging Damage:Tree Length vs Log Length. American Pulpwood Association Meeting.

Kellog, L.D., & M.A. Hargrove, 1985. Harvesting Cost and Stand Damage Comparisons of Cable Thinning Techniques, Herring Bone Strip Thinning vs Conventional Thinning. Proc. of COFI In: Operations in Politically and Environmentally Sensitive Areas. COFE. PP:84-90.

Krag, R, 1991. Options for Reducing Soil Disturbance During Timber Harvesting. Canadian Forest Industries.

Stand/Site Damage (Con'T)

Matterson, M. & W. Jonkers, 1981. Forestry Development Project Sarawak. Logging Damage in Tropical High Forest. FAO Rep., Working Pap. 5.

McNabb, June 1993. Plan Now or Pay Later. Canadian Forest Industries.

Miller, G.W., N.I. Lamson, & S.M. Brock, 1984. Logging Damage Associated with Central Appalachian Hardwood Stands With a Wheeled Skidder. In Proc. Mountain Logging Sym., June 5-7, West Vir. Univ. pp:124-131.

Nilsson, P.O. & A. Hyppel, 1972. Studies on Rot Damage in Scars of Spruce. (Karkkainen, M.:Decay Following Logging Injury in Stems and Roots of Norway Spruce.) Envir. Can. OOENV TR 102.

Nyland, R.D. & W.J. Gabriel, 1971. Logging Damage to Partially Cut Hardwoods Stands in New York State. AFRI Res. Rep. 5.

Nyland, R.D. & W.J. Gabriel, 1972. Injuries From Tree-Length Skidding With Rubber-Tired Versus Crawler Tractors. S.U.N.Y. Coll. For. Appl. For. Res. Inst., Rep. No. 8, 11p.

Ostrofsky, W.D., R.S. Seymour, & R.C. Lemin, Jr., 1986. Damage to Northern Hardwoods from Thinning Using Whole-Tree Harvesting Technology. Can. J. For. Res., 16(6):1228-1244.

Rollerson, T.P., 1979. Queen Charlotte Woodlands Division Windthrow Study. Woodland Services. MacMillan Bloedel Ltd., Nanamio, B.C., 32p.

Rubtsov, N.I., & V.I. Shchendrova VI, 1973. The Development of Decay in Roots After Mechanical Damage. Life Sci. and Agric. Exp. Stn., U. of Maine, pp:114-118.

Ryan, T., 1988. Effects of Thinning Damage to Crop Trees. LIRO, Tech. Release, 10(3):4P.

Stokes, B.J., & J.F. McNeel, 1990. Wood Damage From Felling. USDA For. Serv. S. For. Exp. Stn., No. 258.

Walker, K., 1982. Identifing and Managing Windthrow - Prone Timber. Notes for Discussion Session-BCMoF, Prince George For. Reg., 33p.

Stand/Site Damage (Con'T)

Wasterlund, I., 1986. Machine Forces That Damage Trees and Ground in Thinning Operations. Swedish Univ. of Agri. Sci. In Proc. Harvesting Machines and Systems Evaluation Workshop (W.B. Stuart, ed.) IEA Workshop, Charleston, SC., Nov 18-19, 1986

Wasterlund, I., 1986. Damage to Ground and Roots. In New Thoughts About Strip Roads, Damage and Techniques in Thinning Operations. Swedish Univ. of Agri.

Wasterlund, I., 1988. Damages and Growth Effects After Selective Mechanical Cleaning. Scand. J. For. Res. 3:259-272.

Wasterlund, I., 1989. Effects of Damages on the Newly Thinned Stand Due to Mechanized Forest Operations. Economic Commission for Europe/FAO Seminar on the Impact of Mechanization of Forest Operations on the Soil, Belgium.


Recreation and Landscape Aesthetics

Anon., 1977. Timber Harvesting and Esthetic Quality (Including Recreation). Concurrent Technical Session A. Proc. 1977 National Convention, SAF 1977:34-52.

Barns, R.L., 1977. Planned Pattern Harvest: A Proposal For Visual and Psychological Improvement. Intermountain Sect. Soc. Amer. Foresters Procedings.

Benson, R.E., 1979. Aesthetic Impacts of Harvesting and Residue Management - Public Reference Rating. In Proc. of Environmental Consequences of Timber Harvesting in Rocky Mountain Coniferous Forests, Sept 11-13.

Benson, R.E., S.F. McCool, & J.A. Schlieter, 1985. Attaining Visual Quality Objectives in Timber Harvest Areas: Landscape Architects' Evaluation. USDA For. Serv. Res. Pap., INT-348:8pp.

Buck, D.E., 1971. Aesthetics and Cutting in the Shoreline Reserve of Lake Temagami. For Chron. 47(6):270-272.

Franklin, J.F., & R.T.T. Forman, 1987. Creating Landscape Patterns by Forest Cutting - Ecological Consequences and Principles. Landscape Ecology 1(1):5-18.

Leisure Consultants, 1973. Forest Recreation - Can We Meet the Challenge? A Definition of Problems and Conflicts Among Key Interest Groups. 128p.

Litton. R.B., Jr., 1984. Visual Vulnerability of the Landscape: Control of Visual Quality. USDA For. Serv., WO-39.

Marvel, C.C., 1988. Creating Better Looking National Forest Using Natural-Appearing Cutting Patterns. Western J. of Appl. For., 3(4).

McDonald, P.M. & R.V. Whiteley, 1972. Logging a Roadside Stand to Protect Scenic Values. J. of For. 70(2):80-83.

Murtha, P.A. & M.E. Greco, 1975. Appraisal of Forest Aesthetic Values - An Annotated Bibliography. CFS For. Man. Inst. Inf. Rep. FMR-X-79.

OMNR, 1989. Timber Management Guidelines for the Protection of Tourism Values. Ontario Ministry of Nat. Resour. Public Info. Cen.


Recreation and Landscape Aesthetics (Con'T)

OMNR, 1991. Timber Management Guidelines for the Protection of Cultural Heritage Resources.

Ostheimer, J.M., et. al., 1977. Timber Harvesting and Aesthetic Quality (including recreation). Concurrent Technical Session A. SAF Proc. Nat. Conv. Albaquerque, Oct 2-6.



Annon, 1982. Implications of "Muddling Through" For Wildlife Management. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 10(4):363-369.

Armleder, H.M. & R.J. Dawson, 1992. Logging on Mule Deer Winter Range: An Integrated Management Approarch. For Chron 68(1):132-137.

Bietz, B.F., 1982. Impact of Logging and Associated Practices on Salmonid Standing Crop in the Maritimes. (?)

Bissonette, J.A., 1982. Effects of Various Cutting Practices on Normal Deer Wintering Activities. Maine Coop Wildl. Res. Unit.

Boer, A.H., N. Prentice, & T. Reid, 1982. Deer Wintering Area Management for the Eighties. Department of Natural Resources and Energy.

Campbell, T.M., (?). Short Term Effects of Timber Harvests on Pine Martin Ecology. MSc. Thesis, Colorodo State Univ., 1979, 71p.

Carvell, K.L., 1984. The Impact of Silvicultural Practices on the Density, Height and Composition of the understory - With Special Reference to Wildlife Habitat. For. Abs. 1984:45-1539 ?.

Crawford, H.S., 1985. Wildlife Habitat Management and Changing Forest Practices in the Northeast. For. Abs. 1985:46-1001.

Crawford, H.S. & R.W. Titterington, 198?. The Effects of Silvicultural Practices on Bird Communities in Upland Spruce-Fir Stands. In. Workshop Proc. Management of Northcentral and Northeastern Forest for Nongame Birds, USDA For Serv., Gen. Tech. Rep., NC-51

Crawford, H.S., & R.M. Frank, 199? Wildlife Habitat Responses to Silvicultural Practices in Spruce-Fir Forests. USDA. Trans. 52nd N.A. Wildl. & Nat. Res. Conf.

Cromer, J.I. & C.H. Smith, 1968. Sufficient Deer Browse Produce by a Wide Range of Cutting Practices. N.E. Fish and Wildl. Conf. Proc. 1968,25:37-43.

Wildlife (Con'T)

Del Giudice, G.D., 1990. Assessing the Relationship of Conifer Thermal Cover to Winter Distribution, Movements, and Survival of White-Tailed Deer in North Central Minnesota. Minnesota Department Natural Resources, Wildl. Pops. and Res. Unit.

Dickinson, Nathaniel R., Carrying Capacity on Northern Ranges. N.Y. Dept. Environmental Conservation.

DNRE, 1990. Forest Land Habitat Management Program: Progress Report. Wildlife Habitat Canada, Canada/New Brunswick Cooperation Agreement on Forest Development and Wildlife Habitat Canada.

DNRE, 1991. Forest Management Planning For Supply of White-Tailed Deer Critical Winter Habitat, 1992 Working Guidelines.

DNRE, 1991. Forest Management Planning For Supply of Mature Coniferous Forest Habitat on Crown Land, 1992 Working Guidelines.

DNRE, 1991. Forest Land Habitat Management Program: Progress Report. Wildlife Habitat Canada, Canada/New Brunswick Cooperation Agreement on Forest Development and Wildlife Habitat Canada.

DNRE, 1992. Recovey Plan For White-Tailed Deer In Northern New Brunswick. Deer Recovery Team.

Drolet, C.A., 1978. Use of Clear Cuts by White Tailed Deer in Southern New Brunswick and Central Nova Scotia. The Canadian Field Naturalist, 92(3):275-282.

Elliott, C.A., 1988. A Forester's Guide to Managing Wildlife Habitats in Maine. University of Maine, Cooperative Extension Service.

Getz, W.M. & R.G. Haight. 1989. Population Harvesting: Demographic Models of Fish, Forest, and Animal Resources. Princeton Univ. Press Monographs in Population Biology, No 27.

Gilick, T. & B.D. Scott, 1978. Buffer Strips and the Protection of Fishery Resources: an Economic Analysis. Forestry Abstracts 1978:39-501. ?

Gill, John D., March 1957. Review of Deer Yard Management 1956. Dept. Inland Fisheries and Game, Augusta, Maine, Game Division Bulletin No. 5.

Wildlife (Con'T)

Habeck, James R., July 1958. White Cedar Ecotypes in Wisconsin. Ecology, Vol. 39, No. 3.

Hart, A.C., H.G. Abbott, & E.R. Ladd, 1968. Do small Mammals and ground feeding birds affect spruce and fir reproduction? USDA, For. Serv> Res. Pap. NE-110, NE For. Exp. Stn.

Hollstedt, C., A. Harris, 1992. Critical Silvics of Reindeer Lichen As Related to Vegetation Management. Ont. Ministry Nat. Resources, TN-17.

Hormay, A.L., 1940. The Effect of Logging on Forage. Chronica Botanica.

Koehler, G.M., & J.D. Brittell, 1990. Managing Spruce-Fir Habitat for Lynx and Snowshoe Hares. J. of For. pp:10-14.

Maine Forest Service, Dept. of Conservation, 1990. General Guidelines for the Managment of P-FW and P-4 Deer Wintering Areas in the Jurisdiction of the Land Use Regulation Commission.

McCaffery, Keith R., Deer Carrying Capacity in Northern Wisconsin. Wisconsin DNR.

McGinnes, B.S., 1969. How Size and Distribution of Cutting Units Affect Food and Cover of Deer. In Proc. of a Symp. on White Tailed Deer in the Southern Forest Habitat. Nacogdoches, Texas, pp:66-70.

McNay, R.S., R.E. Page, & A. Campbell, 19??. Application of Expert-based Decision Models to Promote Integrated Management of Forest Deer. Trans. 52nd N.A. Wildl. & Nat. Res. Conf.

McTague, J.P. & D.R. Patton, 1989. Stand Density Index and its Application in Describing Wildlife Habitat. Wild. Soc. Bull., 17:58-62.

Monthey, R.W., 1984. Effects of Timber Harvesting on Ungulates in Northern Maine. J. of Wildl. Man., 48(1):279-285.

Moran, R.J. & J.R. Terry, 1987. Initial Response of Deer Populations to Experimental Forest Cutting in Michigan. Michigan Dept. Nat. Res. Wildl. Div. Rep. No. 3010.

Wildlife (Con'T)

Nova Scotia Dept. of Lands and Forests, 19??. Forest /Wildlife Guidelines and Standards for Nova Scotia. N.S. Dept. Lands and Forests.

Nyberg, J.B., A.S. Harestad, & F.L. Bunnell, 19??. "Old Growth" by Design: Managing Young Forests for Old-growth Wildlife.

OMNR, 1988. Timber Management Guidelines for the Provision of Moose Habitat. Wildlife Br. OMNR

OMNR, 1988. Timber Management Guidelines for the Protection of Fish Habitat. Fisheries Br. OMNR

Ozoga, John J., July 1968. Variations in Microclimate in a Conifer Swamp Deeryard in Northern Michigan. Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 32, No. 3.

Patch, Jeffrey R., Habitat Supply Analysis and Forest Management. N.B. DNR., Trans. 52nd N.A. Wildl. & Nat. Res. Conf.

Petraborg, W.E., 1971. Wildlife Habitat Improvement and Logging. Univ. Minn. For. Ser. Rep 116:31-32.

Puglisi, M.J. & J.D. Hassinger, 1977. Rapid Survey for Forest Wildlife Habitat Improvement. J. of For., 75:585-586.

Quebec Department of Natural Resources, 1991. Guidelines for Management of White-Tailed Deer Wintering Areas.

Reay, et. al., 1990. Management Guide for Deer Wintering Aeras in Vermount. Dept. of Fish and Wildlife

Rowe, L.W., 1974. Habitat Protection: Recommended Guidelines for Construction and Forestry. Environ. Can. Fish and Marine Serv.

Siderits, Karl, June 1975. Forest Diversity, An Approach to Forest Wildlife Management. The Forestry Chronicle.

Smith, J.H.G., 1974. Dynamics of Stand Development as Related to Wildlife. Oregon State Univ.

Smith, P.C., & E.L. Borczon, 1981. Cutting Plans for Deer and Timber in Cedar Swamps. Ontario Min. Nat. Res.

Telfer, E.S., Oct. 1974. Logging As A Factor in Wildlife Ecology In the Boreal Forest. The Forestry Chronicle.

Wildlife (Con'T)

Telfer, E.S., Aug. 1978. Silviculture in the Eastern Deer Yards. The Forestry Chronicle.

Thomas, C.D., 1990. What Do Real Population Dynamics Tell Us About Minimum Viable Population Sizes. Minimum Viable Populations.

Todesco, C.J.W., H.G. Cummings, and McNicol, J.G., 1985. Winter Moose Utilization of Alternate Strip Cuts and Clearcuts in Northern Ontario: Preliminary Results. Alces 21:447-474.

Verme, Louis J., July 1965. Swamp Conifer Deeryards in Northern Michigan Their Ecology and Management. Journal of Forestry.

Voigt, D.R., 1991. Timber Management Guidelines for the Provision of White-Tailed Deer Habitat. OMNR, Wildlife Res. Sec., Wildlife Branch.

Wallmo, O.C., 1969. Response of Deer to Alternate Strip Cutting of Lodgepole Pine and Spruce-Fir Timber in Colorodo. USDA For. Serv.Mtn. For. and Range Exp. Stn. Res.Note RM-141, 4p.

Wiley, J.E., 1988. Wildlife Guidelines for te Public Reserved Lands in Maine. Bureau of Public Lands, Maine Department of Conservation.



Baskerville, G.L., 1987. Implementation of the Crown Lands and Forest Act - Observations and comments on the process-. DNRE.

Baskerville, G.L., 1988. Forest Information Systems That Really Work. For Chron. (?)

Baskerville, G.L., 1991. The Danger of Decesion by Concensus. AgriScience. (?)

Blum, B.M. & D.A. MacLean, 1985. Potential Silviculture, Harvesting and Salvage Practices in Eastern America. Proc. of the CANUSA Spruce Budworm Res. Symp., Bangor, Maine 1985:264-280.

Breadon, R.E., 1983. Timber Development Planning for the British Columbia Interior: The Total Chance Concept. For. Eng. Res. Inst. Can. HB-4, Vancouver, B.C., 73p.

Brown, G.W., W.R. Bentley, & J.C. Gorden, 1982. Developing Harvest Systems for the Future:Linking Strategies, Biology and Design. For. Prod. J., 32(6):35-38

Brown, W.J., 1987. Integrated Silviculture and Harvesting - One Example. Proc. CPPA Woodlands Section 68th Ann. Mtg. 1987.

Conservation Council of New Brunswick, 1993. Managing Crown Forest in the Public Interest: A Proposal. EcoAlert 24(6): 6-7.

Daigle, P.W., 1992. Financial Aspects of Alternative Harvest Cutting Methods and Silvicultural Treatments: A Literature Reveiw. British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Res. Br., FRDA II.

DNRE, 1991. Forest Management Manual for Crown Lands.

DNRE. ISBN 1-55048-366-8, 89 pg.

Dunsworth, B.G. & R.C. Bower, 1980. A Graphic Technique for Determining Spacing and Priority. For. Chron. Aug 1980.

Eberle, M., K. Cooke, & T. McDaniels, 1992. Conflict Resolution in Forestry: Recent Initiatives. McDaniels Res. Ltd., Canada/British Columbia FRDA II.

Erdle, T. A. & G. L. Baskerville, 1985. Optimizing Timber Yields in New Brunswick Forests. Journal of Ecological Modeling, (Volume unknown at this time.)

Planning & Economics (Con'T)

Fisher, R.F., 1984. Predicting Tree and Stand Response to Cultural Practices. E.L. Stone Dept of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, Univ. of Tenn., Knoxville, P:53-65.

Gardner, R.B., 1979. Some Environmental and Economic Effects of Alternative Forest Road Designs. ASAE, Paper No. 761560:63-68.

Jacques, R., 1988. Impact of Forestry Activity on the Economy of Canada and its Provinces: An Input-Output Approach. CFS, Inf Rep. E-X-39:34p.

Jamnick, M. S., 1990. A Comparison of Forman & Linear Progaming Approaches to Timber Harvesting Scheduling. Can. J. For. Res. Vol(20):1351-1360.

Kellog, L.D., & M.A. Hargrove, 1985. Harvesting Cost and Stand Damage Comparisons of Cable Thinning Techniques, Herring Bone Strip Thinning vs Conventional Thinning. Proc. of COFI In: Operations in Politically and Environmentally Sensitive Areas. COFE. PP:84-90.

Ketcheson, D.S., 1982. The Impact of Strip Cutting on Logging Cost. Pulp & Paper Canada 83:7(29-34)

Lockwood, C. & T. Moore, 1993. Harvest scheduling with Spatial Constraints: a Simulated Annealing Appraoch. Can. J. For. Res. 23(3):468-478

McCauley, Orris D., David A. Marquis, Oct. 1971. Investment in Precommercial Thinning of Northern Hardwoods. USDA Forest Service Research Paper NE-245.

McNeeley, J.A. & R.J. Dobias, 1991. Economic Incentives for Conserving Biological Diversity in Thailand. Forestry Abstracts. Ambio 20(2):86-90.

Miller, G.W. & R.L. Sarles, 1986. Costs, Yields and Revenues Associated With Thinning and Clearcutting 60 Year old Cherry Maple Stands. USDA For. Serv. N. E. For. Exp Stn., Res. Rep. NE-582:8p.

Miramichi Pulp & Paper, 1989. Communication, Forest Management & Environment. Presented at a Forestry Practices Public Forum, Newcastle, 1989, 45 pages.


Planning & Economics (Con'T)

Nautiyal, J.C. & J.S. Williams, 1990. Response of Optimal Stand Rotation and Management Intensity to One-Time Changes in Stumpage Price, Management Cost, and Discount Rate. For. Sci. 36(2):212-223.

Nelson, J.D. & S.T. Finn, 1991. The influence of Cut Block Size and Adjacency Rules on Harvest Levels and Road Networks. Can J. of For. Res. 21(5):295-600.

Porterfield, R.L. & D. L. Schweitzer, 1975. A Quick and Data-Poor Approach to Evaluating Precommercial Thinning. Journal of Forestry Dec:771-773.

Reed, W.J. & J. Apaloo, 1991. Evaluating the Effect of Risk on the Economics of Juvenile Spacing and Commercial Thinning. Can. J. For. Res. Vol(21):1390-1400

Rotherham, A.A., 1986. Macroeconomic and Social Impact of the Forest Industries in Canada. Proc. of Harvesting Machines & Systems Evaluation Workshop. pp:41-49.

Sessions, J. & J.W. Mann, 1985. Socioeconomic and Environmental Consideration in Selection of Skidding Technologies. Proc. 9th World For. Cong.

Swoveland, C., R. Carter, & T. McDaniels, 1993. A Demonstration of SDSS: A Cost Minimization Approach to Silviculture Planning. Canada/British Columbia FRDA II.

Swedish National Board of Forestry, 1987. Pricing Spacing Operations. Translated by J. Hermilin.




Batcheler, C.L., 1969. Estimation of Density From a Sample of Joint Point and Nearest-Neighbor Distances. Ecology 52(4):703-709. For. Range Exp. Stn. New Zealand.

Borders, B.E. & W.D. Patterson, 1990. Projecting Stand Tables: A Comparison of the Weibull Diameter Distribution Method, A Percentile-Based Projection Method, and a Basal Area Growth Projection Method. For. Sci. 36(2):413-424.

DNRE., Fish and Wildlife Branch, 1992. Field Manual: Field Survey Methodology for Planning and Assessment of 1992 Habitat Management Plans. DNRE.

DNRE., 1994. N.B. Forest Development Survey Field Manual. Timber Management Branch. DNRE.

Fairweather, S.E., 1985. Sequential Sampling for Assessment of Stocking Adequacy. Nor. J. Appl. For. 2:5-8

Fairweather, S.E., & J. F. Amrhein, 1989. A Test of a Nonparametric Distance-Based Estimator for Seedling Density. Can. J. For. Res. 19:1169-1173

Husch, B., C.L. Miller, & T.W. Beers, 1972. Forest Mensuration, 2nd ed. The Ronald Press Company, New York

Jonsson, B., S. Holm, & H. Kallur, 1992. A Forest Inventory Method Based on Density-Adapted Circular Plot Size. Scand. J. For. Res. 7:405-421.

Maas, D., 199?. Natural Regeneration Assessment Methods for Quality and Quanity. In. Proceedings of the Conference on Natural Regneration Management. NBFRAC/For. Can.

McTague, J.P. & D.R. Patton, 1989. Stand Density Index and its Application in Describing Wildlife Habitat. Wild. Soc. Bull., 17:58-62.

USDA, 1989. Reference Handbook For Foresters. Northeastern Area, NA-FR-15.

Vezina, P.E., 1962. Crown Width-DBH Relationship for Open-Grown Balsam Fir and White Spruce in Quebec. For. Chron. Dec. 1962.

Vezina, P.E., 1963. More About Crown Competition Factor. For. Chron 39(3):313-317.

Mensuration (Con'T)

Visser, H., & J. Molenaar, 1992. Estimating Trends and Stochastic Response Functions in Dendroecology with an Application to Fir Decline. For. Sci. 38(2):221-234

Wilson, F.G., 195??. Numerical Expression of Stocking in Terms of Height. Journal of Forestry. (exact citation unknown).

Zeide, B., 1991. Self-thinning and Stand Density. For. Sci. 37(2):517-523.

[Home] - [Motor-Manual Skills Training] - [Timber Cruising] - [Image Bank] - [Contact]

Questions, remarks, requests: mail to ceochris@silvi-crew.com